Encyclopedia Britannica says:
Creationism,also called CREATION SCIENCE, or SCIENTIFIC CREATIONISM, counterevolutionary, fundamentalist theory or doctrine that postulates that matter, the various forms of life, and the world were created by God out of nothing.
Creationism grew as a result of the advancement of evolution that was evident after the publication in 1859 of Darwin's Origin of Species. Within two decades, most of the scientific community had accepted some form of organic evolution. Many religious leaders, however, feared that a less-than-literal reading of the biblical story of creation would result in a loss of faith; and well-known spokesmen for the cause - such as William Jennings Bryan - saw modern war and other purported signs of moral decay to be evidence of the damage brought about by the teaching of godless evolution. The issue was argued on a number of platforms, one of the most famous being the Scopes Trial (1925), in which a high school teacher was convicted of unlawfully teaching the theory of evolution. In the United States, creationism faced a strong denial - in legal terms - in 1987, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states may not require public schools to teach the creationist theory of human origin alongside evolution if such requirements are intended to promote religious belief. It was further determined that those states that had sought to "alter the science curriculum to reflect endorsement of a religious view that is antagonistic to the theory of evolution" were breaking the First Amendment ban on the establishment of religion.
It's important to note that the doctrine is invariably associated with conservative, not uncommonly radically conservative, moral and political attitudes. This is most clearly seen in the, alledgedly, "pro-family" movement in the United States and its aversion to the "religion" of "secular humanism," and to some extent in the home-schooling movement.
In many respects the political aspects of creationism and fundamentalism are of far more importance than the theories of creation that they propound. After all, in the grand scheme of things, it matters little how a relatively small and scientifically illiterate religious movement believes the universe to have been created. That being said the regressive, authoritarian and superstitious social attitudes that go hand in hand with the doctrines are important because of the false, but attractive, promise of social stability they hold out: "if we revert to the simpler beliefs of earlier times, all social ills will simply go away".
This is of course simply rubbish, implying as it does, that social ills are exclusive to modern society, when any amount of serious research into the matter will quickly confirm that every society in every age has its problems, and that (for example) teenage crime, drug abuse, crimes of violence and so on are not restricted to this particular society[note 2] and time.
In general we are fortunate to live in a time and place that is relatively benign compared to other periods in history and places in the world. Although society is far from perfect, here and now, it is less likely we will be tortured, burnt, hanged, imprisoned or otherwise molested because of what we are or what we believe than at any other time in history.
This may change and belief in a divinely sanctioned and authoritarian moral code is conducive towards that kind of change. A species of fundamentalist / creationist called "Reconstructionists" have a few ideas in that direction.
Reconstructionists (not to be confused with the Jewish reconstructionist movement of Rabbi Mordecai M. Kaplan (1881-1983)) hold the view that all Old Testament law was not rendered obsolete by the incarnation of the Christ. Only laws specifically overturned by Christ. no longer apply to the Christian.
A Reconstructionist society would include no prison system - criminals would either die for their crimes or workd as indentured servants to make restitution to their victims. Likewise, there would be no credit system; indigents would be forced to work off their debts. The economy would be based on a gold standard, children would be educated at home and there would be no property or income tax - instead, everyone would give a ten percent "tithe" to the church which would administer welfare projects.
AIDS, for example, is seen by many reconstructonists and fundamentalists, as the result of societies failure to impliment biblical law.
The Taliban are, of course, Islamic Fundamantalists and not Christian Fundamentalists, yet the urge to return to "that old time religion" can clearly be perceived in both approaches and although each would have you believe that they are headed in opposite direction from the other, it is clear that they will meet somewhere around the back.